- A "Urine C&S" (is a urinalysis with a culture for bacteria, fungi, or in rare(er) cases, anaerobic organisms and protozoans), which helps the practitioner decide which is the most effective treatment with the least side effect potential. Why shoot a rabbit with a cannon when a pellet gun will suffice.
Penicillins: a class of oral and parenteral medications initially discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, and developed in the 1940's, mostly because of the need for an infection-fighting agent generated by WWII. The perfection of the manufacturing process largely took place in the United States, with priority just below that of the Manhattan Project. Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, of West Chester, Pennsylvania developed the first effective process for the generation of penicillin mold from orange skins in 1942, and in conjunction with the British (with the help of an Australian scientist), who discovered the properties of this, the world's first "miracle drug"
Once the go-to treatment for gram-positive organisms, penicillin, penicillin G, procaine penicillin, and penicillin V-K are now relegated to the category of "mostly ineffective" for use in UTI's, primarily due to their over use in times past, which produced strains of bacteria resistant to the medication. Penicillin was, at one time, the first-line cure for syphilis and gonorrhea.
Per: Moderator Tim